The king of the Olympian gods, Zeus, had many powers that he used in mythology.
Some, like his use of thunderbolts as weapons, were used to strike down his foes. Others, like the ability to change his form, were used to seduce his many lovers.
As the king of the gods, Zeus also had the power to command the other deities of the pantheon. When Zeus himself did not have the power to accomplish a task, he could call upon another god that did.
Despite all of this, however, Zeus’s powers were not necessarily exceptional. Among the Greek gods he was the highest authority, but that did not mean that his power was absolute.
Zeus’s primary, and most iconic, power was related to his role as the sky god. Thunderbolts were his weapon of choice.
When Zeus overtly used supernatural abilities rather than more subtle displays of power, it was almost always in the form of thunder and lightning. Whether against a mighty foe like the giant Typhon or to punish the wrongdoing of humans, Zeus hurled a thunderbolt to smite his enemies.
In the Odyssey, for example, Zeus sends a thunderbolt at the request of Helios to wreck Odysseus’s ship as punishment for stealing the sun god’s cattle. In some versions of his story, Bellerophon was thrown from the back of Pegasus by one of Zeus’s bolts for trying to reach Olympus without an invitation.
In a few myths, the children of the gods themselves were struck down by such bolts. The son of Helios, Phaethon, was killed for scorching the earth with his father’s chariot, while Apollo’s son Asclepius was hit with lightning for bringing the dead back to life.
Along with his thunder, Zeus also had the power to call up storms. Often he shared this ability with his brother Poseidon, and the two worked together to send wind and waves that would wreck ships or drive them off course.
Storms and thunder were thought to be signs of the sky god’s anger, and their frequency and unpredictability was attributed to his quick temper.
Another of Zeus’s chief powers was his ability to shapeshift. This was not uncommon among the Olympians, but the king of the gods used it often in his myths.
Specifically, Zeus used his shapeshifting powers to gain access to those he desired. He became a bull to abduct Europa, a swan to seduce Leta, an eagle to fly away with Ganymede, and even a shower of gold to reach Danae in her prison.
In one myth, his pursuit of Callisto, he even took on the form of his own daughter. Zeus made himself look like Artemis to gain the nymph’s trust.
Some writers occasionally gave Zeus powers that were less impressive, but no less powerful. In the Iliad, for example, Zeus is able to influence the actions of Menelaus by sending him a dream.
One of these less obvious powers was his role as the keeper of laws. Zeus was a witness to all oaths and the origin of law, so anyone found to be violating either would be instantly punished.
Zeus, however, did not have to control abilities himself to make an impact. As the king of the gods, he had the power to command other deities to use their own powers as he wished.
In the Greek version of the flood myth, for example, it was Poseidon who sent waters to cover the world but he did so at Zeus’s command. While the Furies attacked those who broke laws, they acted as agents of Zeus.
Zeus certainly had impressive powers, but among the members of the Greek pantheon they were hardly unique.
His ability to cast down thunderbolts was his most defining ability. It was used to great effect in battle and to punish others, but even this was not especially powerful for an Olympian.
The thunderbolt of Zeus had been one of three gifts crafted by the Cyclopes. Poseidon and Hades had received tools from these giants as well, and Poseidon’s trident was at least as powerful as Zeus’s thunder.
As the sky god, Zeus could also call up storms. This, however, was in conjunction with Poseidon who would send devastating waves and on land would bring floods.
Even this power was not completely unique. After the Trojan War, for example, Athena sends a storm of her own, usually outside of her attributed powers, to disperse the Greek fleet.
Shapeshifting, too, was a common power of the Greek gods. Poseidon similarly used this ability to woo his lovers, while Athena and Hera both took on the forms of mortal women to interact with humans for other purposes.
Some older gods were even more accomplished shapeshifters than Zeus. Proteus, who was sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea, and the Titaness Thetis both had to be held tightly while quickly assuming a variety of shapes by those who wished to defeat them.
Zeus’s chief power, therefore, was in the ability to command the other gods. But this, too, is lacking at a closer inspection.
In many myths, the other gods defy Zeus’s commands by threatening him. Demeter swears to make the earth fallow if Persephone is not returned when Zeus arranges her marriage to Hades, while Helios threatens to shine the sun into the Underworld if the theft of his cattle is not avenged.
Hera, Zeus’s jealous wife, is often shown as defiant to such an extend that Zeus tries to avoid her wrath. His daughter Athena, meanwhile, is often able to cajole her father into following the course of action she prefers.
Even Zeus’s power over the other Olympians is, therefore, limited. While he is their king, many have their own abilities that Zeus cannot fully command and are able to use these to reject his will.
Greek mythology painted Zeus not as an all-powerful supreme being, but as being first among equals. Unlike his father and grandfather, Zeus ruled in conjunction with the other gods rather than placing himself strictly before them.
Zeus’s most well-known powers were related to his dominion over the sky.
He used his iconic weapon, his thunderbolt, to smite enemies in battle. Those who disobeyed his laws or incurred his wrath could also be struck by lightning as punishment.
When angered, he could call up storms. At sea, especially, these were a dangerous sign of the sky god’s displeasure.
Zeus was an accomplished shapeshifter, who often used this ability in his schemes to win over new mistresses and lovers. He turned into many animals, birds, people, and even other gods to get close to those he found attractive.
More powerful than any of his individual powers, however, was the fact that he was the king of the gods. He could command the other Olympians to carry out his wishes and use their own unique abilities to his ends.
Despite this, however, Zeus was not really much more powerful than the other gods of Olympus.
His power over the weather was rivalled by Poseidon’s weapons and influence over both the sea and land. Many other gods changed their forms, using shapeshifting to ends other than seduction.
Even in his ability to command the gods he was not omnipotent. Many gods defied him in mythology, using their own powers to force Zeus to accept their own demands.
Although Zeus was vastly powerful, his powers were nearly equalled by those of many other gods. Rather than being a tyrannical, all-powerful king his role among the gods of Olympus was as first among equals.